This website is released in conjunction with the paper entitled:
A "Copernican" Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root.

Behar DM, van Oven M, Rosset S, Metspalu M, Loogväli EL, Silva NM, Kivisild T, Torroni A, Villems R; Am J Hum Genet. 2012.
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Mutational events along the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny are traditionally identified relative to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS), a contemporary European sequence published in 1981. This historical choice is a continuous source of inconsistencies, misinterpretations and errors in medical, forensic and population genetic studies. Here, after having refined the human mtDNA phylogeny to an unprecedented level by adding information from 8,216 modern mitogenomes, we propose switching the reference to a Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS), which was identified by considering all available mitogenomes from Homo neanderthalensis.

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This "Copernican" reassessment of the human mtDNA tree from its deepest root should resolve previous problems and will have a substantial practical and educational influence on the scientific and public perception of human evolution by clarifying the core principles of common ancestry for extant descendants. American Journal of Human Genetics.